THE ROCK ART AREA OF HUASHAN  

                                                     SUSHENG

    The rock art of Huashan in Ningming County of Zuojiang  River  Guangxi. All the rock arts were drawn on the steep cliffs.  The  distance between the bottom of the rock art  and  ground  or  the  surface  of water  is usually about 20  metros to 80  meters, or up  to  120  meters. In  each place there are 3 to 1800 figures. All the images are different  degrees of reddish brown color. There are different kinds  of images,   such  as human figures, dogs, birds and implements such as knives, swords,  bell,   besides  there  are  figures of  boats  and  sexual intercourse. The rock art of Huashan is the biggest,  most  magnificent and most typical. On the cliff 210.05 meters in width and  40  meters  in height there are many figures. Especially  at  the  lower  part  of  the cliff. Now 1819 figures can   be still seen.

    According  to  the  figures   of   implements   with   age   features, archaeological materials and C-14 testing, we hold  that  the  rock art were drawn in the times between the early period of Warring States and the Eastern Han Dynasty.  Its  development  can  be into four stages. The first stage is an initiative one, in the time of early  and middle period of the Warring states. The second stage is  a flourishing one, in the time between the later period of the Warring states and  the early period of the Western Dynasty. The  third stage  is  still  a flourishing one but it began to decline, in the time of the  middle  and later period of  the  Western  Han Dynasty. The  fourth  stage  is  a declining one, in the time of the Eastern Han Dynasty.

    According to the historic records, we can say  that  the nationality who drew the rock art was the ancestors of  the  zhuang people. In  the myths' legends and the idea of the religion of the  Zhuang people,  the ancestors'  deities  have  many  functions. Therefore  the   rock   art expressing the worship of ancestors has at least three function: to  get rid of the disasters  of  flood  and drought,   guarantee  a  flourishing population and bless and protect the warriors.

    The rock arts were drawn mainly by  and  drawing  the  outline of the figure. Stressing the outline of the figure with rough lines  and in a style of primitive simplicity without details. The artists were rather good  at  composition  and  condensation.    They   grasped the   main characteristics of human figures, animals and implements. The  rock  art at various places has a  strong  color  of  primitive reline  with  an atmosphere of immense zeal  and  vigorous  mystery. The  rock  art  is obviously different from that in other places.

    Owing to the long-term corrosion of nature and the man  - made  causes, the rock art of all the places have been damaged  to  varying  degrees. Many images of the rock art have become in completed and  blurred. Some of them cannot be recognized. Sometimes  there  are  only  some mottled spots left. Up to now there have not been affective scientific means  to prevent the nature from damaging the  rock  art.   It  is necessary to organize experts  concerned  to  engage  in  experiments and  scientific researches to gain and convey experience. As to the man-made damage,   we should stop people from doing it through production.   We  should strengthen scientific researches and  getin touch  with  associations concerned at home and abroad for aacademic exchange.

   The rock art of the Huashan is the precious cultural  heritage  left by the ancestors of Zhuang   people. The grand scale of  the  rock  art, its stylistic characteristics and are seldom seen. It  has  great academic values in history, nationalism, archaeology and the history of religion and fine arts. It is natural that academic  circles  differ about  some questions at present. We are confident  that  the differences  will  be reduced with the development of scientific research. 

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