Grotte Chauvet Archaeologically Dated
Rock Art Congress IRAC ´98 - Vila Real – Portugal
I am very
grateful to J. Clottes for his kind permission to use drawings taken
from his publications for my comparative plates (letter 1998-XI-12). For
detail see appendix "Comparative plates". Drawings: Marlies
Kemper, Erlangen. We refer always to the German edition of Chauvet et
Chauvet was discovered at Christmas 1994. It is situated near the upper
end of the huge Ardèche Canyon in front of the famous Pont-d´Arc,
a natural bridge spanning over the river. Only a few days later the
information about the discovery of a unique, extremely old cave
sanctuary spread all over the world. A beautiful picture book came out
only a few months later (Chauvet et al. 1995). It has been the main
source of our knowledge and discussion up to now.
Clottes took the view in an epilogue to the book of Chauvet et al.(1995)
that the art of Grotte Chauvet is more or less homogeneous and
originates from the Solutrean period (Clottes in Chauvet et al. 1995,
110-113). At that time, AMS-dates were not yet available. Clottes
himself emphasized, that direct dating of rock art may yield very useful
results, but should not be used uncritically (Clottes 1994; 1997; cf.
also Rosenfeld & Smith 1997). But the tide turned immediately after
the publication of the first AMS- und 14C - dating. A stratigraphical
sequence of black paintings (ca. 32,000 - 30,000 BP) - calcite layer -
black torch mark (ca. 26,000 BP) yielded seemingly coherent results: the
dates of the stratigraphically earlier paintings are higher than that of
the torch marks on the calcite layer covering some paintings after an
unknown span of time (Clottes et al. 1995). As a consequence of these
very high AMS-dates, Grotte Chauvet is now considered to be an
Aurignacian sanctuary, previous to all other cave art. This opinion is
taken for granted by different authors. The dates figure in modern
comprehensive publications, although they are totally inconsistent with
the traditional and generally accepted history of palaeolithic art (e.g.
Lorblanchet 1997, 267-270). This "classical" chronology is not
an evolunistic, theoretical one, but based mainly on archaeological
criteria taken from stratigraphical observations at prehistoric sites,
from superpositions of paintings and engravings and the comparison with
portable art coming from settlement layers. Nevertheless archaeological
argumentation is getting out of fashion (Lorblanchet & Bahn 1993).
Stylistic dating is declared to be questionable by some authors.
"Radiocarbon determinations have been privileged on the basis of
their status as the results of objective, scientific research, an
attitude clearly rooted in what Feyerabend (1975) called the socially
privileged status of science" (Rosenfeld & Smith 1997, 409).
But in fact, even those colleagues, claiming we are living in a
post-stylistic era and denying the validity of archaeological
argumentation, use style for dating, whenever direct dating is not
possible. Stylistic observations are naturally not safe from errors, but
are used with very good results by classical archaeology, art history,
linguistics etc. Even prehistoric research argues with the
"style", i.e. the "typology" of prehistoric objects.
No one would accept a Magdalenian harpoon as Aurignacian, a Medieval
dagger as a Bronze Age one only because of a radiocarbon date. Such a
determination would be rejected as aberrant. The origin of the suspicion
of stylistic dating may be that "stylistic analyses" in
prehistoric literature are normally very superficial and are never up to
standard customary in history of art or Greek and Roman archaeology.
of rock art yielded at Niaux and other caves results in accordance with
our expectation (Clottes 1994; Clottes et al. 1992; Valladas et al.
1992; Züchner 1993). Therefore we cannot reject dates only because they
do not fit to our concepts. But we may not trust in direct dating
uncritically. At Grotte Cosquer (Clottes & Courtin 1995) for
instance the dates of two black bisons, which are not identical, but
very similar, differ about 8000 years (Clottes 1997; Clottes et al.
1996)! That is a very long space of time even in palaeolithic scale
covering Gravettian and Solutrean periods, i.e. the art of
Pair-non-Pair, Le Combel, Pech-Merle and parts of Lascaux! (Figure
1). The sequence of the Cueva de Parpalló near Valencia proves
that style and type of animals and symbols changed considerably during
these millennia (Villaverde 1992; Villaverde Bonilla 1994). We are not
able to imagine, that artistic conventions stayed in one cave nearly
unchanged about eight millennia, all the more Cosquer and Parpalló
belong to a kindred cultural sphere and have many details in common.
hypothesis, that the paintings of Grotte Chauvet could be the creation
of outstanding Aurignacian artists antedating all known art, is taken
for granted in present literature (e.g. Clottes 1995; 1996), and spread
all over the world by mass media. This fact and the uncritical
acceptance of science by non-scientists prevent an unprejudiced
consideration of the chronological problems. But in my opinion, there
are enough valid arguments to assume that the magnificent drawings and
paintings of Grotte Chauvet are not the creation of some outstanding
Aurignacian artists, having no predecessors and no successors, but
belong mainly to Gravettian, Solutrean and Early Magdalenian (Züchner
1995; 1996). The argumentation, "dangerous animals" (Hahn
1986; Clottes 1995; 1996) are the typical fauna of Aurignacian art and
therefore the AMS-dates are reliable and vice versa, is a classical circulus
vitiosus. The same "dangerous animals" could also be taken
as a typical Magdalenian fauna! Dates around 15,000 BP would fit very
well to the mass of lions, cave bears, rhinos etc. coming into fashion
at the turn of Early to Middle Magdalenian at Lascaux (Cabinet des
felines; Leroi-Gourhan 1965, 256), Le Gabillou (Gaussen 1964), La Marche
(Pales & Saint Péreuse 1969) etc.. Hahn´s concept of
"Kraft und Aggression" (power and aggression) as leitmotiv of
Aurignacian art should not be valid even in his own sphere of work in
SW-Germany! It is only one facet of the Aurignacian art, as there exist
also statuettes of a bison, a horse and a human being at the Vogelherd,
i.e. of a "normal" fauna. It is extremely dangerous to argue
with such a small number of objects. They may be a very small section of
a greater whole we do not know. The quality of the ivory statuettes
points by itself to an artistic tradition testified only at three sites
in SW-Germany (Vogelherd, Geissenklösterle, Hohlenstein-Stadel) (Müller-Beck
& Albrecht 1987; Werberger 1994) and one in Austria (Stratzing-Rehberg)
(Neugebauer-Maresch 1989). The Aurignacian art of France is restricted
to so-called vulvas, some footprints of lions or cave bears and very
simple animals (Delluc 1991). There may be some reasons to assume that
the engravings of Pair-non-Pair belong to the Aurignacian and not to the
Gravettian layers of the cave (Delluc 1991). But even if this scope
could be proven as correct, there exists no resemblance between Chauvet
Chauvet is accepted as an Aurignacian sanctuary by outstanding
authorities on French rock art, a refutation of AMS-results requires a
detailed and really conclusive argumentation. It would be useful to draw
up the stylistic development of each species of animals on the basis of
well dated examples (GRAPP 1993). Only then differences and congruences
would leap to the eyes even for those who are not trained in stylistic
analyses and who have no profound knowledge of palaeolithic art in
general. This effort requires a long experience with palaeolithic art,
an enormous amount of comparative material and an extensive discussion
of each detail. By obvious reasons we have to confine us to the most
convincing parallels and refrain from discussing the discriminating
elements. Unfortunately, the basis of our argumentation is still very
small. We are forced to rely on the splendid publication of Chauvet,
Brunel Deschamps, Hillaire and the articles of Clottes. Future will
bring to light many other details and supplementary arguments.
will prove whether we are right or not. Whatever will happen, severe
problems will raise: Why are the AMS-dates nearly twice as high as the
archaeological ones? Or how can we explain vice versa the fact that so
many details of the Aurignacian paintings return after a brake of about
15,000 years in the Early and the beginning of Middle Magdalenian?
of Grotte Chauvet
engravings mostly unpublished until today, there are two main groups of
representations at Grotte Chauvet: a red and a black series of drawings
and paintings. The red ones are centred near the ancient entrance, the
black ones in the interior part of the cave Clottes 1998, 117-122).
There are some superpositions proving the red series as the earlier one
(Clottes in Chauvet et al. 1995, 81-116). The colour by itself is not a
criterion to distinguish between old and young! Red and black may be
used at the same time. Decisive are mainly differences in details,
themes and symbols. Indeed the differences between red and black series
could not be greater. The red one is characterized by signs like dots,
handprints, bracket- or breast-like signs etc. and static animal
silhouettes, the black one by other types of signs and species of
animals, by naturalism and sometimes by powerful movement. Whereas the
red series has mainly parallels in Gravettian or Early Solutrean art,
the black series corresponds in many details with the cave and portable
art of Early and to a less degree of Middle Magdalenian, even if there
is also a great number of special features not known in other caves up
of the red series
If we accept
the stratigraphical sequence of AMS - dates and of the red and black
pictures, we are forced to consider the red ones to be of Aurignacian if
not of even earlier origin. An analysis of signs and animals contradicts
such a conclusion.
information about the selected examples see the adherent list of
comparative plates. We refrain from references to generally known cave
sanctuaries, as we take for granted prehistorians are familiar with
handprints occur all over the world in many different areas and
cultures. But in Europe they are restricted to palaeolithic cave art and
wherever we have some information about the age of negative handprints,
they originate from Gravettian period (Abri Labattut, Abri du Poisson:
Delluc 1991, 158, 222; Fuente del Salín: Moure-Romanillo et al.
1984/85). Positive hands may belong even to Early Solutrean. (Figure
red and black dots are widespread in cave art. They start perhaps in
Aurignacian, if not in Late Mousterian period. The "cupules"
on the tombstone of a Neanderthaler´s grave at La Ferrassie (Peyrony
1934) may be considered to be the sculptured version of such dots.
Single dots, irregular and well structured groups of dots are a typical
element of Gravettian and Solutrean cave sanctuaries. They got out of
use during the first half of Magdalenian, are unknown in Upper
Magdalenian sites (cf. also Villaverde Bonilla 1994) and re-appeared in
portable art not until the Azilian. Handprints and dots occur side by
side e.g. at Pech-Merle, i.e. they are typical signs of Gravettian
or birdlike signs: these signs of Grotte
Chauvet have no exact parallel in other caves. But anyway they are
unique. Most similar are the breastlike sign of Le Portel (Ariège) (Beltrán
et al. 1966, No. 22), the reliefs in the Roc de Vézac Cave (Dordogne)
(Atlas 1984, 242) and the ivory pendants of the Gravettian site of Dolní
Vestonice (Moravia) (e.g. Freund 1957). At least one of Chauvet´s
signs (Chauvet et al. 1995, Fig. 15) has much in common with the red
drawings of La Pasiega (Breuil et al. 1913, Fig. 21) in northern Spain.
The "butterflies" of Chauvet may be the realistic predecessors
of the varied family of so-called "signes en accolade"
(bracket signs) or of "Le Placard type". (Clottes et al.
1990). Excavations at Le Placard proved them as Solutrean. But there are
firm arguments to assume an earlier origin of the type. (Figure
this very simple sign is not as unique as declared in some publications.
‘Crosses’ exist at Lascaux (Salle des Taureaux) and are dated to the
end of Solutrean or the beginning of Magdalenian (Leroi-Gourhan &
Allain 1997). They may originate even earlier. The cross of Grotte
Chauvet seems to be connected with a fringed rectangle. But the photo in
the picture book does not allow a reliable statement. (Figure
crossed by lines: rectangles crossed by
lines or with fringes at both sides are well documented at La Pileta
(rock art) (Breuil et al. 1915; Dams 1987) and at Cueva de Parpalló
(portable art), where they do not occur before the Late Solutrean (Villaverde-Bonillas
In contrast to signs, animals by themselves give no good information
about their age. "Dangerous animals" are not confined to one
period! They are only one facet of their time, "gentle" or
"normal" animals, like horse and bison, the other. Most
species occur during the whole upper palaeolithic. Only the percentage
of representations changes considerably in the course of time. Relevant
information about the age of red animals can be gained only by general
stylistic elements. A striking feature is the fact that most red animals
of Grotte Chauvet are drawn with great experience. The artists would be
able to show the animals realistic and three-dimensional, i.e. with four
legs, one behind the other in correct perspective, like the painters of
the black series. But it was not their intention to do so; they
preferred two-dimensional silhouettes with one leg per pair or legs
arranged side by side. According to the Parpalló sequence and some
other complexes of portable art, three-dimensionality is gained during
Upper Solutrean and only since then regularly used (Villaverde 1992).
The style of the red animals, not their species, fits very well to that
of Cougnac: the Megaloceroses are drawn very exactly, but only as
silhouettes. Cougnac is dated by AMS-measurements and other reasons to
Gravettian (Lorblanchet 1993; Valladas et al. 1993) or the Early
Solutrean. A supplementary argument yields the Great Cave of
Arcy-sur-Cure (Baffier & Girard 1998): a red cave bear, datable to
Gravettian by good reasons, could also be taken as part of Chauvet´s
and other observations we should conclude: the red series of Grotte
Chauvet, as far as we can judge from the preliminary reports, originates
mainly from Gravettian. Some very roughly outlined animals may be older,
perhaps even Aurignacian, others may belong already to Early Solutrean.
As Villaverde Bonilla worked out by his analysis of the well stratified
material of the Cueva de Parpalló, the emergence of new lithic
artefacts does not coincident with breaks or dividing lines in
palaeolithic art. According to him, the transition from early to Middle
Solutrean brings much more new tendencies in art, than that of
Gravettian to Early Solutrean (Villaverde Bonilla 1994; Züchner 1997).
of the black series
differences between red and black series could not be greater. The red
series is characterized by some special types of signs and static
silhouettes of animals species, the black one by other signs, by three-dimensionalism
and movement and by a great variety of species.
Only a few signs have been published up to now. Unfortunately, nothing
is known about the most decisive type, centred at the end of one branch
of the cave: the Gallery of Lattices. If these lattices are not only
crossing lines, but in fact structured symbols, they belong to the Final
Solutrean or Early Magdalenian according to the sequences of Parpalló (Villaverde
Bonilla 1994) and Abri Lachaud (Cheynier 1965), like those of Lascaux,
Le Gabillou etc. A great black vulva near the so-called sorcerer at the
end of the cave is difficult to date (Chauvet et al. 1995, fig. 93). But
it is definitely not an Aurignacian, but most likely a Magdalenian type.
Wavy lines combined with animals (Chauvet et al. 1995, fig. 30) are a
typical phenomenon of Magdalenian symbolism according to rock art and
portable art. (For the origin and development of wavy lines see e.g.
Villaverde Bonilla 1994).
Rhinos occur from Aurigancian to Magdalenian in Eastern and Western
Europe in form of statuettes, engravings and cave art. In Western Europe
most of them belong to the Magdalenian in general (Lascaux, Rouffignac,
Les Combarelles, Trois-Frères, La Colombière/Ain etc.) (good examples
in: Graziosi 1956; Leroi-Gourhan 1965). The black rhinos of Grotte
Chauvet are totally different from the red ones in details, movement,
perspective, etc. One of the AMS-dated rhinos is very similar to an
engraving of Trois-Frères, which shows according to the photo in Bégouen
& Breuil 1958 (Pl. XVI, b) even the curious M-like ears. The black
rhinos of Chauvet are unique in some way, but they differ totally from
the red ones. Some of them would not surprise in cave sanctuaries of
Middle Magdalenian. (Figure
Male and female bovids (bos primigenius) are in contrast to bisons a
favoured motive of Gravettian, Solutrean and Early Magdalenian (Badegoulian)
in France and Spain, but they appear even later in Magdalenian context
(e.g. Mas-d´Azil, Grotte de la Mairie à Teyjat, Levanzo etc.; cf.
Graziosi 1956). General habit, proportions and details of
representations change in the course of time considerably. Only one
detail may be cited. The horns of bos primigenius are shown in twisted
perspective from the beginning of cave art until Early Magdalenian (e.g.
in Lascaux) and sometimes even later. In contrast to the ancient style,
the horns of the aurochses of Grotte Chauvet are seen in strict side
view, pointing forward in an S-curve. This way to represent the horns of
bos primigenius - the exact congruence is important - came into fashion
during Early Magdalenian and continues until Late Magdalenian. It is to
be found from Western Europe to Southern Italy (e.g. Cueva de Parpalló,
Mas-d´Azil, La Vache, Grotte de la Mairie, Le Trou de Chaleux,
Levanzo etc.). One may argue that there are some bovids with horns
pointing forward at Cueva de Parpalló (Villaverde 1992) and Ebbou (Graziosi
1956) of Early to Middle Solutrean context. But this does not contradict
to our argumentation, as the heads and bodies of these animals differ
fundamentally from those of Chauvet and other Magdalenian examples. (Figure
They occur during the whole upper palaeolithic art in Eastern and
Western Europe. But the earlier representations like those of Pech-Merle
differ from the Magdalenian ones (e.g. in Font-de-Gaume, Altamira, Niaux
etc.) in general and from that of Grotte Chauvet in particular in its
whole habit and in many details. Some of the few published bisons of
Chauvet have good pendants in other caves. The manner in which the heavy
head and voluminous body of the AMS-dated bison (Chauvet et al. 1995,
fig. 92) are represented, is exactly comparable with reliefs and
paintings of Angles-sur-l´Anglin, Font-de-Gaume or El Pindal.
Other details, like the mane falling between the horns, hanging from the
back line etc. are documented at caves of France and Spain too. The long
line of bison heads seen in front view is unique in cave art. But rows
of animal heads seen in profile or front view are a characteristic
element of Magdalenian portable art (good examples in: Graziosi 1956). (Figure
of felines are common in Aurignacian and Gravettian art of Central and
Eastern Europe, but nearly unknown in Western Europe before the Early
Magdalenian. Since that period, felines are not very frequent, but
regularly depicted in cave and portable art (Lascaux, Le Gabillou, La
Marche, Trois-Frères, Les Combarelles, La Vache etc.). (Figure
are one of the main subjects of palaeolithic art. Different modes or
styles of representation came into fashion and disappeared in the course
of millennia. The most beautiful horses of Grotte Chauvet have much in
common with the horses of the "nave" of Lascaux around the
great black cow. There are some similarities to the black horses of
Grotte Cosquer too, which are dated to 18,820 ± 310 BP and 18,840 ±
240 BP, i.e. to Solutrean, at least in one case (horse 1: Clottes et al.
1992), whereas horse 5 is dated much earlier ( 24,730 ± 300 PP: Clottes
et al. 1996). (Figure
The great deer is mainly known from earlier upper palaeolithic, whereas
it does not occur during Magdalenian. Most famous are the
representations of Pair-non-Pair, Le Combel and Cougnac of Gravettian. A
little known relief of Roc-de-Sers (Upper Solutrean) (Martin 1932, Pl.
II.1) may represent a megaloceros, too. It is dated stratigraphically to
Upper Solutrean. At Cosquer, this species belongs to the black series
dated to the same period by AMS. At least one great deer of Grotte
Chauvet (Chauvet et al. 1995, Fig. 72) has similar curious stick-like
legs as its counterpart at Grotte Cosquer (Clottes & Courtin 1995,
Fig. 109). Such a curious styling of legs is unusual but known from some
caves in France and Northern Spain in contexts suggesting a Late
Solutrean or Early Magdalenian age (e.g. La Pasiega: Breuil et al. 1913,
Nr. 34; Lascaux, small deer in the Salle des Taureaux: Bataille 1955,
animals and lines of animal heads: In many
palaeolithic caves there exist rock surfaces full of animals drawn one
above the other, so that it is nearly impossible to decipher them (e.g.
La Lluera I, Pech-Merle, Trois-Frères). Real groups or flocks of
animals like those of Lascaux came into fashion only since Late
Solutrean or Early Magdalenian (Badegoulian) period. Herds are a popular
motif of Magdalenian portable art. Lines of animal heads are a
characteristic feature of Magdalenian portable art (good examples in
Graziosi 1956). Bison heads engraved in front view carved into a
shoulder blade of La Madeleine (Paillet 1996, Fig. 2) could be taken as
sketches of the line of black heads at Chauvet. (Figure
Representations of deer are centred on Gravettian, Solutrean and Early
Magdalenian (e.g. Chuffín, Covalanas, Lascaux etc.). Later they get
scarce especially in France, but they are never totally missing.
In contrast to deer, reindeer is nearly
unknown in rock art and portable art before Middle Magdalenian (Le
Gabillou, Trois-Frères, Les Combarelles, Tito Bustillo etc.). Even then
it is not as much depicted as one should assume from its importance as a
prey. Its occurrence in cave art is therefore a very important hint to
the age of the paintings.
are rare in Pleistocene art, but there exist some very fine examples at
Trois-Frères and Enlène (?) (Bégouen & Breuil 1958, Pl. XI, Pl.
XXXI b), Le Portel (Beltrán et al. 1966, Nr. 2) and La Viña (Fortea
et al. 1990, Fig. 5.1) of Middle Magdalenian times.
Only a selection of red and black animals has been published.
Chronologically, they should belong to the respective series.
species is common during whole upper palaeolithic art. Chronologically,
they should belong to the respective red or black series.
The so-called sorcerer or bison-man (Cauvet et al. 1995, Fig. 93) would
be a clear hint to a Magdalenian origin, if he is in fact an
anthropozoomorphic creature (Züchner 1972). Judging by the published
photo it is not. It seems that there are two superimposing figures on
the panel: a bison and two legs of a human being (?) of Magdalenian
type, looking in different directions.
There are many other details at Grotte
Chauvet which are comparable with those of other cave and portable art
of Franco-Cantabria. We confine us to one example: the lively movement
of some animals. It is exactly comparable to the bestiary of Lascaux,
dated by good reasons to Final Solutrean and Early Magdalenian, and to a
smaller degree to the engravings of Paraplló Cave of the same period.
It is present neither before nor later. Animals of Gravettian, Solutrean
and Middle to Upper Magdalenian are normally static: compare e.g. the
animals of Cougnac, Pech-Merle, Font-de-Gaume, Niaux and Lascaux. (Figure
and other arguments we have to conclude that the majority of black
paintings - as far as published until today - was created at Early
Magdalenian (Badegoulian). Some elements may be of Late Solutrean, the
latest ones even of Magdalenian III-IV. In my opinion, Grotte Chauvet
houses two different sanctuaries: one centred in Gravettian (red
series), the other in Early Magdalenian period (black series). Further
research may prove that there are some (red) drawings of Aurignacian
period too and that it was used continuously from Gravettian to early
Magdalenian as cave-sanctuary. The earlier sanctuary includes many
elements well known from other sites, even if some species of animals,
like cave bears, are rare in early art. The "black" sanctuary
may appear singular at first sight. In some way it is in fact. There
exists no sanctuary with so many rhinos and lions, organized in great
herds, even if one or two species prevail in other cave, too: mammoth
and rhino at Rouffignac, bison and mammoth at Pech-Merle, horse, aurochs
and deer at Lascaux etc.. The way many of the black rhinos are drawn is
still unknown. But all elements - animals and signs - as well as many
significant details occur in rock art and portable art of Magdalenian.
The mixture of known and unknown elements is not in contrast to our
experience. The palaeolithic art of Spain, France and Italy follows the
same general trends in the course of millennia, but each region has its
special character: Dordogne, Pyrenees, Cantabria or Andalusia have their
unmistakable features. Little is known about the Mediterranean caves,
but we suppose future will bring new light into this area.
If we assume
that the AMS dates are physically correct, then there must exist reasons
causing results contradicting to archaeological evidence. Even if we
rule out contamination, other events may entail aberrant results. One
could be that prehistoric artists prepared charcoal with sub-fossil wood
buried in river terraces or under glacial dunes. The idea may seem
fantastic at first sight. But in fact there exists wood which survived
in glacial sediments some hundred thousand years in very good condition.
Roots and tree trunks of Allerød look sometimes so fresh that
they cannot be distinguished from recent ones at first sight. Black
paint prepared of this material today would appear 11,000 years old! The
seemingly coherent sequence of dates may be explained by the fact that
Gravettian people lightened fire and torches in the cave (Bednarik 1994
a.b). As its charcoal rests on the surface even today, it could be
re-used by any later visitor to make some strokes. But there may be
other reasons falsifying results of AMS dates too.
started only at Grotte Chauvet and it is too early to jump at
conclusions! Future will show what really happened there. In my opinion,
Chauvet and his friends have not discovered the oldest cave sanctuary of
the world, but - regarding its age and importance - a second Lascaux.
1: From Gravettian to Badegoulian:
8000 years of Palaeolithic art: Pair-non-Pair (Gravettian): Delluc 1991,
Fig. 43; Grotte Cosquer ("Gravettian"): Clottes et al. 1996;
Grotte Cosquer ("Late Solutrean/Badegoulian"): Clottes et al.
1992; 1994; Badegoule: Cheynier 1949, Fig. 13; Lascaux: Late Badegoulian
(Bataille 1955, 113); Pech-Merle: Lemozi 1929, Pl. 30.
2: Positive and negative hand
silhouettes of Gravettian period: Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et al. 1995,
Fig. 26, 91; Fuente del Salín: Moure-Romanillo et al. 1984/85, Fig. 2,
5; Labattut: Delluc 1991, Fig. 113; Pech-Merle: Lorblanchet 1997, 179;
Abri du Poisson: Delluc 1991, Fig. 160.
3: Red dots of Gravettian and
Solutrean period: Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et al. 1995, Fig. 11, 13, 26;
Chufín: Almagro Basch 1973, Lam. 63 B, XV B; Pech-Merle: Lemozi et al.
1969, Pl. 53.77.
4: Red signs of Grotte Chauvet and
parallels in cave art: Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et al. 1995, Fig. 9, 20,
24; Grotte Cosquer: Clottes et al. 1997, Fig. 1.4; Dolní Vestonice:
Vialou 1992, Fig. 74; Lascaux: Bataille 1955, 61; Pasiega: Breuil et al.
1913, Fig. 21, 22; Pech-Merle: Lemozi 1929, Pl. 45; Pileta: Breuil et
al. 1915, Fig. 13; Placard: Clottes et al. 1990, Fig. 13; Portel: Beltrán
et al. 1966, Lam. XXXV, 22; Roc de Vézac: Atlas 1984, 242.
5: Red animals of Grotte Chauvet:
naturalism and two-dimensionality in the art of Gravettian and Early
Solutrean: Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et al. 1995, Fig. 19, 21, 23;
Arcy-sur-Cure: Baffier & Girard 1998, Fig. 52; Cougnac: Lorblanchet
1997, 174, 175; Tête du Lion: Lorblanchet 1997, 236.
6: Rhinos of Gravettian (upper line)
and Magdalenian (lower lines): Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et al. 1995, Fig.
27, 53, 69, 86; Rouffignac: Atlas 1984, 205; Trilobite: Baffier &
Girard 1998, Fig. 16; Trois Frères: Bégouen & Breuil 1958, Pl. XVI
7: Bull heads of Middle and Upper
Magdalenian type and of Late Solutrean and Early Magdalenian type (last
line): Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et al. 1995, Fig. 50; Lascaux: Bataille
1955, 50, 51; Parpalló: Villaverde Bonilla 1994, Vol. 1, 386, Fig. 55
8: The AMS-dated black bison of Grotte
Chauvet and bisons of Middle Magdalenian (III-IV) period: Grotte Chauvet:
Chauvet et al. 1995, Fig. 92; Altamira: Breuil & Obermaier 1935, Pl.
XLII; Font-de-Gaume: Capitan et al. 1910, Nr. 16, 19, 45, 50; Isturitz:
Saint-Périer 1947, 413, Fig. 7.5; Niaux: Beltrán et al. 1973, 147.99;
Pindal: Alcalde del Río et al. 1911, Fig. 74; Trois-Frères: Bégouen
& Breuil 1958, Fig. 12.
9: Lions of Grotte Chauvet and other
sites of Aurignacian and Middle Magdalenian: Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et
al. 1995, Fig. 61, 77, 78, 79; Aldène: Vialou 1979, Fig. 10; La Marche:
Pales & Saint Péreuse 1969, Pl. 3, 10; Vogelherd: Müller-Beck
& Albrecht 1987, Pl. 5.
10:Horses of Grotte Chauvet and horses
of Late Solutrean and Early Magdalenian: Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et al.
1995, Fig. 51; Grotte Cosquer: Clottes & Courtin 1995, Fig. 61;
Lascaux: Bataille 1955, 102.
11:Megaloceros in cave art: a
selection of different periods: Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et al. 1995,
Fig. 68, 72; Grotte Cosquer: Clottes & Courtin 1995, Fig. 109; La Grèze:
Delluc 1991, Fig. 171; Pair-non-Pair: Delluc 1991, Fig. 65; Pech-Merle
(Le Combel): Lemozi et al. 1969, Pl. 12.17.
12:Lines of animals and heads in front
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1995, Fig. 82; Gourdan: Graziosi 1956, Pl. 88 a, c; Isturitz: Graziosi
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Graziosi 1956, Pl. 62 b; Massat: Graziosi 1956, Pl. 88 f; Teyjat, Grotte
de la Mairie: Graziosi 1956, Pl. 88 b.
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Early Magdalenian: Grotte Chauvet: Chauvet et al. 1995, Fig. 62, 68, 69,
75; Lascaux: Bataille 1955, 78, 79, 85, 100.
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